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    Home History and Culture Chinese Batik
    Chinese Batik
    Learn Chinese - History and Culture

    ????????????????? ?Chinese batik
    History
    Batik (là rǎn 蠟染) is a wax-resist dyeing technique used on textile. Chinese Batik is also called La Ran (là rǎn 蠟染) in China. Researches show batik originates from ancient China. It was then called La Xie (là xié 臘纈). As early as in Qin (qín cháo 秦朝) and Han Dynasties (hàn cháo漢朝), people in southwestern minority regions of China, finding that wax can prevent from dyeing(rǎn 染), proficiently mastered the craft of batik. They used bees wax (là 蠟) and worm wax as material in preventing dyeing.

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    Chinese batikThere is an interesting story about how the batik was invented in Guizhou province (guì zhōu shěng 貴州省). The story relates that long, long ago, there was a girl living in a stone village called Anshun (ān shùn 安順), now a city in Guizhou Province. She was fond of dyeing white cloth blue and purple. One day, while she was working, a bee happened to alight on her cloth. After she took away the bee, she found there was a white dot left on the cloth, which looked very pretty. Her finding led to the use of wax in dyeing.

    By the time of Dong Han Dynasty (dōng hàn 東漢), the batik skill was rather mature. By Xi Jin Dynasty (xī jìn 西晉), a dozen of color batik products could be produced. In Tang Dynasty(táng cháo 唐朝), batik prevailed. The batik skill has been passed on generation after generation in the minority regions of Guizhou province and it has been spread widely across different regions.

    Features
    Design of traditional Guizhou batik is based on realism. The artistic language is simple, pure, straightforward and powerful. Especially, its design pattern is free from confinement of details. Bold variation and exaggeration are employed. Such variation and exaggeration are out of the simple but wide imagination and it is full of charms. Batik designs are quite rich and colorful. Most of them are taken from actual life or stories, typical of the traditional culture.Chinese batik

    Dyeing Materials
    Fabrics:Natural or vegetable fiber fabrics, such as cotton, linen and silk, are the ones to use for batik.
    Charcoal or pencil: for making preliminary sketch.
    Wax:Wax can be used from candles or beeswax.
    Boiler: for melting wax.
    Brass knife: to move the melted wax to fill designs.
    Cold water: to dye and fix the wax.

    Procedure
    The main process of batik making is delicate: first draw some designs or contours of images of a flower, bird, fish or insect on a piece of white cloth, Chinese batikthen use a special brass knife to scoop melted wax to fill in those designs or contours as it hardens on the cotton cloth. The cloth is immersed completely in a jar of indigo dye bath so that the unwaxed parts take on color. The dyed cloth is boiled to melt off the wax and to leave clear patterns in white on a blue ground. Since wax is easy to crack, the dye penetrates fine cracks naturally formed in the solidified wax, leaving hair-thin blue lines on the undyed white designs and enhancing the charm of the final product.

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    Chinese Batik

    Usages
    Chinese batikIn ethnic areas, batik is used extensively to make clothes art quilt covers, head-scarves, belts, etc. Among the Miao nationality (miáo zú 苗族), a minority ethnic group in Southwest China, young girls have to learn to make batik, to weave, and to embroider. Custom demands that they make their own garments, from wedding dresses to funeral shrouds.
    Batik may be used for pillow tops, wall hangings, place mats or scarves. Big, bold designs in bright colors are most striking.


    中國蠟染

    Chinese batik

    ????? 蠟染,是我國古老的民間傳統紡織印染手工藝。蠟染,古稱蠟,與絞纈(扎染)、夾纈(鏤空印花)并稱為我國古代三大印花技藝。蠟染是我國苗族古老而獨特的手工繪染藝術,起源于秦漢,盛行于隋唐(公元581——907年)。從我國的染織技術開創時,蠟染就作為最古老的手工藝,稱之為中華民族古文明的一部分。
    ??????蠟染制作方法,是將白布平鋪于案上,置蠟于小鍋中,加溫溶解為汁,用蠟刀蘸蠟汁繪于布上。一般不打樣,只憑構思繪畫,也不用直尺和圓規,所畫的中行線、直線和方圓圖形,折疊起來能吻合不差;所繪花鳥蟲魚,惟妙惟肖,栩栩如生。繪成后,投入染缸漬染,染好撈出用清水煮沸,蠟溶化后即現出白色花紋。
    ????? 在苗族地區的很多地方都流行有《蠟染歌》(古歌),代代傳唱敘述著蠟染的起源的故事:有一個聰明美麗的苗族姑娘并不滿足于衣服的均一色彩,總希望能在裙子上染出各種各樣的花卉圖案來,可是一件一件的手工Chinese batik繪制實在太麻煩,但她一時又想不出什么好辦法來,終日為此悶悶不樂。一天,姑娘又看著一簇簇一叢叢的鮮花久久發楞,辦法沒想出來卻在沉思中昏昏入睡。朦朧中有一個衣著漂亮的花仙子把她帶到了一個百花園中,園里有無數的奇花異草,鳥語花香、蝶舞蜂忙。姑娘在花園中看呀看呀,看得入了迷,連蜜蜂爬滿了她的衣裙也渾然不知。等她醒來一看,才知道剛才是睡著了,可是低頭再看:花叢中的蜜蜂真的剛剛飛走,而且在她的衣裙上留下了斑斑點點的蜜汁和蜂蠟,很不好看。她只好把衣裙拿到存放著靛藍的染桶中去,想重新把衣裙染一次,試圖覆蓋掉蠟跡。染完之后,又拿到沸水中去漂清浮色。
    ????? 當姑娘從沸水中取出衣裙的時候,奇跡出現了:深藍色的衣裙上被蜂蠟沾過的地方出現了美麗的白花!姑娘心頭一動,立即找來蜂蠟,加熱熬化后用樹枝在白布上畫出了蠟花圖案,然后放到靛藍染液中去染色,最后用沸水熔掉蜂蠟,布面上就現出了各種各樣的白花,哦!染缸中居然染出了印花布,姑娘高興地唱起了山歌。人們聽到了姑娘的歌聲,紛紛來到她家聽她講百花園里的夢境、觀看她染出的花裙、學習她描花繪圖的技藝,大家回到自己家里之后,照著姑娘教給的方法,也都染出了花樣繁多的花布。從此,蠟染技術就在苗族及與之雜居的布依、瑤族等兄弟民族之間流傳開來了。Chinese batik
    ????? 蠟染工藝在我國西南少數民族地區世代相傳,尤其是貴州少數民族地區,繼承和發揚了傳統的蠟染工藝,而且流行很廣,已成為少數民族婦女生活中不可缺少的一種藝術。這里的少數民族以蠟染作主要裝飾的有黃平、重安江一帶和丹寨縣的苗族婦女,她們的頭巾、圍腰、衣服、裙子、綁腿,綁腿,都是蠟染制成,其它如傘套、枕巾,飯籃蓋帕、包袱、書包、背帶等也都使用蠟染;安順、普定一帶的苗族婦女把蠟染花紋裝飾在衣袖、衣襟和衣服前后擺的邊緣,她們背孩子的蠟染背帶,點染得精巧細致,除藍白二色外,有的還加染上紅、黃、綠等色,成為明快富麗的多色蠟染。

     

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